Sunday, May 24, 2020

Essay on The Fragile Five Effects on International Business

South Africa, Turkey, India, Indonesia and Brazil become known as the Fragile Five because their economies are too dependent on foreign investment, which is forecast to decline this year (Thomas, L., 2014) The Fragile Five are a huge issue in today’s rising interest rates. The rising rates in these five countries are going to affect the world internationally. Should more countries be supporting the Fragile Five’s investment interests, or should they step back and allow the countries to sort it out for themselves? Who are the Fragile Five Who are the Fragile Five? The Fragile Five consists of five countries that in entering the progressive world. These countries consist of Brazil, India, Indonesia, South Africa, and Turkey who are†¦show more content†¦Since the growth of the country had been so strong, the Central Bank tried to boost the economy by slashing interest rates, but they ended up making matters worse when they started to raise interest rates back up (Cascione, 2013). The interest rate has already hit 10.5% (Monaghan, 2014). Although the country is struggling, they have taken steps to combat rising interest rates, inflation, and to help keep the people from struggling. India The Indian rupee has become extremely unstable in the economy. Like Brazil, India is facing 6.1% inflation while its growth rate is sitting at 4.4% (Badkar, 2013). In order to curb the inflation, India banks have started buying oil in US dollars, while they sell it Rupees (Badkar, 2013). This allows them to make money off the sell rather than lose money from conversion. The country is still facing serious interest rates, as high as 8% (Monaghan, 2014). Indonesia Indonesia has been facing worker strikes due to increasing inflation, because of this; investors are pulling out of the country all together. The country has been facing â€Å"social unrest† and protests since the government cut fuel subsidies; prices for petrol and diesel (Monaghan, 2014). This is a problem because the government has put so many stipulations on their currency that it is difficult to sell their money and they are not making a profit as a country (Boyle, 2013). The country hasShow MoreRelatedCase Study : Porter s Five Forces Model1132 Words   |  5 PagesInstitution: Name: â€Æ' Abstract Porter sFiveForce Porter s Five Forces Model is a critical instrument to break down an outer aggressive environment of the business. The model incorporates threat of entry, threat of rivalry, threat of suppliers, threat of purchasers and threat of substitutes. How the five forces analysis reveal about the nature and strength of the various competitive pressures eBay faces Risk of Entry This business is an Internet driven organization industry, where there isRead MoreGlobal Business Strategy : Wal Mart And Sam s Club Chains1086 Words   |  5 Pagesembrace a distinct corporate strategy whose goal revolves around dominance into the already existing retail market. There has also been an increase in the manner for which expansion activities of the business are conducted. Numerous ventures have been made into the United States, as well as other international markets making Wal-Mart a true retail giant. Wal-Mart has over 2.2 million dedicated associates globally, over 300k has been employed over 10 years, 190,000 U.S. stores / club associates were promotedRead MoreEssay on The Environmental Impact of Skiing and Tourism1718 Words   |  7 PagesIt is extremely easy to forget the impact imposed by skiing on the mountain environments. Most people believe the only effect that they have on the environment within mountain regions are the tracks in the snow left by their skis . However, there is strong evidence that skiing has both a social and more noticeably, environmental impacts that influence the natural environment. Some experts of the Alpine region suggest that tourists directly affect over half of the Alps entire surface area. It can thereforeRead MoreThe World Trade Organization Essay1690 Words   |  7 Pagesinstitutions i will be talking about include the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organisation. These organisations provide loans, grants and practical assistance to governments, in addition to loaning money to assist private businesses within developing countries. They also play a significant role in the privatisation and overseeing of public utilities and natural resources. The World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), often called the Bretton Woods InstitutionsRead MoreFord Motor Company International Global Crisis Essay1596 Words   |  7 Pagesaffected Ford: The economic recession worldwide has redefined many a modern economy, including the bigwigs like the United States of America and Russia. The downtrend exhibited by the US economy is hemorrhaging at a rate that is alien to the previous five decades. With nearly four million jobs on the line, revival seems a distant dream, but not impossible. The US economic crisis has hit the common man the most, reducing the quantum and quality of lifestyle greatly. Homes and investments have plungedRead MoreEssay on Ending Destruction of the Rainforest1339 Words   |  6 Pagesdisappearance. In fact, most people realize what exactly is taking place. But however, instead of trying to aid in the termination of this disaster. They place this into the back of their ignorant little minds thinking that it will not directly effect them. Every day the removal continues, it actually occurs extremely fast and at a pace of 80 acres per minute. That means at 80 acres per minute with 60 minutes per hour and 24 hours a day, there is a l oss of approximately 115,000 acres a day. Read MoreGlobal E-Commerce: Market Entry Market Management2204 Words   |  9 Pagessignificant shifts in the methodology of operating business globally. Therefore, it is both an interesting and challenging issue to address, explore, and conceptualize proliferation of e-Commerce and also adoption and cultural resistance and evolution for global consumers. This analysis will use four different class reading to discuss the topic, global e-commerce. The readings are â€Å"Getting Paid For Your Sales-by Dagmar Grieder†, â€Å"Educator Insights: International Marketing Blunders Revisited-Some LessonsRead MoreThe Impact Of Communism And Capitalism1694 Words   |  7 PagesStephanie LeBlanc Professor Wesley Austin Economics 201 16 October 2016 The Impact of Communism There are faults within both communism and capitalism, but sometimes one can even effect the other. This paper will explore what the possible connection is between North Korea’s communistic economy and how it may have impacted South Korea’s capitalistic economy. At the end of the World War II in 1945, two separate regimes emerged on the Korean peninsula to replace what was once the colonial governmentRead MoreThe Prospects Of Melting Arctic Ice Caps And The Consequences Of Climate Change1510 Words   |  7 Pagesprevalent throughout history. Amongst the world’s regions, East Asia has been exposed to this process the longest as Europe has looked to the East for external resources when early civilizations expanded their geographic and political boundaries. With the effect of globalization on the region, East Asia opened up its borders to the migration of goods, services, information and people. In the 19th century, countries such as China, Japan, and Korea that were attributed to being the â€Å"Far East† not only becauseRead MoreWhy We Need Act On Gun Control1646 Words   |  7 Pagesamendment states: A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed. While the oldest former member of the U.S. Supreme Court John Paul Steven suggested by adding five words: A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms when serving in the militia shall not be infringed.(Barrett). By doing this, it would protect the public safety while not

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Is The Worlds Wife is Feminist Propaganda Essay - 1472 Words

I do not agree that the collection, The Worlds Wife, is â€Å"nothing but feminist propaganda†. I must agree that there are a lot of poems within the collection that are feminist in some way or another but there are also others that don’t really show a feeling of feminist propaganda at all. ‘Propaganda’ means â€Å"Information given to show something or someone in a biased way† and ‘Feminist’ means â€Å"Women are better than men and so can do everything better than they can† and therefore ‘Feminist Propaganda’ means â€Å"the spread of information about how women are greater than men†. This collection does show the empowerment of women throughout the selected poems because of the switch from famous male characters to their female counterparts.†¦show more content†¦The bells being given female pet names could be argued for the feminist view of the poem, also about half way through the poem Quasimodo â €Å"fucked me underneath the gaping stricken bells†, this personification indicates a woman’s open lips. However when Mrs Quasimodo kisses the â€Å"cold lips of a Queen next to her King† is the strongest argument for the feminist side of the poem. I believe that Mrs Quasimodo however is a social poem and not so much a feminist poem. â€Å"Queen Herod† however is very strongly a feminist poem. This poem is very anti stereotypical male and so sees no need for men. The feminist view within this poem starts when the Queens come to give advice to Queen Herod on the new born baby that will break her daughter’s heart some day. The Black Queen in particular gives Queen Herod this intellectual advice, not like in the original tale when it was the Wise men who were the intellectuals. These Queens are also seem as God like towards the end as they rise up on their camels, this gives a perception that women are god like and so gives a feminist view: â€Å"I watched each turbaned Queen rise like a God on the back of her beast†. This poem shows a very anti stereotypical image of men as it goes through a list of the possible typical men who could take her child’s happiness away: â€Å"Him. The Husband. Hero.Show MoreRelatedFeminism Critical Anthology1502 Words   |  7 Pagescollection The World’s Wife is nothing but feminist propaganda’. Consider this view in the light of your readings of Delilah and Anne Hathaway. In The World’s Wife Carol Ann Duffy explores ‘the blinding effects of ideology’; the inequalities between men and women, and how women are portrayed in literature which stereotypically would be either the ‘dangerous seductress’, ‘cute but essentially helpless’, ‘unworldly’ or the ‘self-sacrificing angel’ as stated by Bertens. Feminists stress the utmost concernRead MoreA Summary Of The NovelThe Handmaids Tale1179 Words   |  5 Pages Published in 1985, Margaret Atwood’s satirical novel The Handmaid’s Tale explores the dystopian world of Gilead through the eyes of Offred, a handmaid. As Offred acclimates to her role as handmaid, she discusses the political developments that led to her current circumstances, and the path that she was forced through as a result. Formerly known as the United States of America, Gilead was established after a massacre of the president and Congress, when a Christian fund amentalist group seized powerRead MoreA Critical Analysis Of The Handmaids Tale1340 Words   |  6 PagesA Critical Analysis of â€Å"The Handmaid’s Tale.† In this dystopia novel, it reveals a remarkable new world called Gilead. â€Å"The Handmaid’s Tale,† by Margaret Atwood, explores all these themes about women who are being subjugated to misogyny to a patriarchal society and had many means by which women tried to gain not only their individualism and their own independence. Her purpose of writing this novel is to warn of the price of an overly zealous religious philosophy, one that places women in such a submissiveRead MoreThe Aftermath Of World War II1627 Words   |  7 PagesIn the aftermath of World War II, the lives of the women changed dramatically. Women spoke their minds out and wanted to be heard. World War II brought them a new outlook on how they should live their lives (Napikoski). It encouraged women to organize social movements such as b oycotts and public marches, pushing for their human rights and protection against discrimination. Alongside, they formed their own organization representing them against the federal government like the NOW or National OrganizationRead MoreFeminist Analysis : One Of The Means 1301 Words   |  6 PagesJun Choi Mr. Foster/ Ms. Reetz English 10 Honors February 9, 2016 Feminist Synthesis Essay â€Å"One of the means by which humanity addresses the inequities in society is through art. In its various forms, art has, in particular, confronted the double standards waged against women throughout the ages† (Foster, Reetz). As depicted by the Pantene Commercial, â€Å"Labels Against Women†, double standards against women are shown through the motif of the milieu. The surroundings of the individuals portray wordsRead Moreâ€Å"A Doll’s House†: Nora and Torvald as Husband and Wife Essay1241 Words   |  5 PagesIn â€Å"A Doll’s House,† Ibsen presents us with the drama of Torvald and Nora Helmer, a husband and wife who have been married for eight years and whose lives are controlled by the society in which they live. Their relationship, although seemingly happy, is marred by the constraints of social attitudes around them and their perceived gender roles. Creating even more conflict is the thin veil of deceit between them, which inevitab ly breaks them apart. In the Victorian era, the status of women in societyRead MoreMovie Analysis : The World Apart 1739 Words   |  7 Pageshave always been tied to the male counterparts relationship. There is a myriad of examples of how the director or author shape the narrative by using stereotypes, but this will focus on a short story A World Apart written by RÃ… ¯Ã… ¾ena Jesenskà ¡, a film Daisies directed by VÄ›ra Chytilovà ¡, and the propaganda film, Confidant. A common focus will be on how the directors or authors reject the gender stereotype that women are the submissive(quiet, calm, polite) and domestic (following a man’s lead). DaisiesRead MoreThe Women s Suffrage Movement1967 Words   |  8 Pageswithout being allowed to state their opinions, they tried to resist laws, fight for their freedom and strive to gain equality with men. This leads to feminism, the belief in political, social, and economic equality between men and women. It is the feminist efforts that have successfully tried to give rights that men had, to women who have been denied those rights. Upon the deprivation of those rights, the Seneca Falls convention and the Declaration of Sentiments helped women gain the privileges andRead MoreThe Fine Line Between Harlot And Handmaiden907 Words   |  4 PagesThe Fine Line Between Harlot and Handmaiden Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale is a warning to the world that by classifying women by their fertility and stripping them of their rights, one can easily create a terrifying dystopia where all fabrics of society suffer the erosive consequences of female subjugation. Women have forever been classified by their fertility and by their class, which has given us such terms as baron, matronly, harlot, fertile, the help, and surrogates. MargaretRead MoreGender, Sexuality, Reproduction, And Motherhood1727 Words   |  7 Pagesoutlook on life, I m desperate. I begin to feel I have no personality. I m a server of food and a putter-on of pants and a bed maker, somebody who can be called on when you want something. But who am I?(Friedan 63) What was it like to be a house wife? Was it in fact imprisonment? Or was it a glorious womanly right? My grandmother followed the social expectations of the time period. She graduated high school in 1965 from Springfield High school in Springfield Oregon, and in the same year at age

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Roles Of Gilegosh And The Power Of Women In Gilgamesh

Throughout the majority history, the power and influence of men over women varied greatly, with women typically being in the position of less power and influence. Although women seem to play a less apparent role, women are essential for both the continuation of life and the nurturing of the future, signifying that the power of women is very potent. The women of Gilgamesh are goddesses, priestesses and a variety of other roles, each with their own set of skills, guide Gilgamesh throughout the epic. Despite the perception of some scholars that the women of Gilgamesh appear inferior, the women have diverse and influential roles throughout the story, challenging the traditional conception of women’s lesser influence and power. The power of†¦show more content†¦Through the mass destruction caused by Ishtar, her power is evidently greater than the many of the dead warriors and equal or greater than that of one of the strongest men, Enkidu. Through the use of the Bull of Hea ven, Ishtar nearly defeats Enkidu, who is the equal of Gilgamesh, both described as large and strong men, an phallic symbol of power. Although she does not kill Gilgamesh with the Bull of Heaven, Enkidu is spat upon and covered in dung, which can be considered as very humiliating, and as Gilgamesh’s equal, this action is equivalent to the humiliation of Gilgamesh as well. For a woman to humiliate the greatest phallic symbols of the epic demonstrates that women are not lesser in power to men. Not only is Ishtar’s revenge a display of her power, but it also demonstrates the diversity of the role of women in the epic, as she does not act as a caring mother or supportive goddess as Ninsun does. Ishtar acts as an strong opponent to Gilgamesh, driving the plot forward as the death of the Bull of Heaven pushes the gods towards deciding that Enkidu must die; this death results in Gilgamesh’s quest for eternal life. Since the death of Enkidu is what causes Gilgamesh to go on his quest for immortality, Ishtar is the catalyst that causes this event to occur, â€Å"They have slaughtered the Bull of Heaven and killed Humbaba, watchman of the Cedar Forest. Therefore, one of the two must die †¦ Enkidu, not Gilgamesh, is the one who must die† (141). With the death of

Unbiased Report Exposes the Unanswered Questions on Samples of an Argumentative Essay

Unbiased Report Exposes the Unanswered Questions on Samples of an Argumentative Essay Argumentative essay format is dependent on your professor's requirements, since there isn't any frequent pattern for each and every essay. You may work on an assortment of essays which require good arguments to work. The very first thing you ought to think about when writing your essay is an excellent argumentative essay format. Before writing an argumentative essay, there's one important thing which you should know. When you've finished your essay, take a while before you return to edit it. It would be great if you can interest the readers before they begin reading the introduction. Your topic ought to have the potential to provide you enough arguments for your essay. The War Against Samples of an Argumentative Essay At length, the author need to take a stance and stay with it. To compose an excellent argumentative essay the students first must investigate several sides of the argument, allowing them to make an educated stance. Another thing you ought to understand is that when writing your essay, you want to support your argument that has a good reason, and utilize great support for each and every view you outline in the essay. Regardless of the popular myth, an excellent argumentative essay is more than simply attempting to show your point with a couple arguments. A thesis creates a particular statement to the reader what you are going to be attempting to argue. Argumentative essay i s a sort of written assignment where you're anticipated to provide your opinion on a particular matter and offer evidence that supports your opinion. An argumentative essay presents evidence for an argument so as to enable the reader know why it's favorable. Besides, do not forget that the secret to a prosperous argumentative essay is in finding good evidence to strengthen your opinion. Opt for a topic which you already know something about and one which you already have an opinion about. Even if you previously have an opinion about the subject, attempt to maintain an open mind. You want to not just guess what people wish to read about, but in addition pick a topic that matches the particular format of the essay. The Topic When it regards an argumentative essay, the very first thing that you should decide on is the topic. Argumentative essays, on the flip side, are more structured and attempt to check at critical issues from several angles. Remember that sources are an ess ential part of the paper. Without a fantastic topic, an argumentative paper will fall flat, however well it's executed. A superior persuasive argument will use the latest data and data from verified sources. If you're struggling with attempting to comprehend how to compose an argumentative essay that will impress and find a great grade, you first must comprehend what it is. You will then have to approach this issue by gathering, generating, and evaluating credible sources to back up your evidence. When you finally choose the argumentative essay topic, it's important to discover and use only sources that are no older than ten decades. The thing you ought to do as a way to structure an argumentative essay is to set a claim that's debatable. Grammatical and spelling mistakes are just unacceptable. Now you have a fundamental grasp of an argumentative essay definition, it is the right time to understand how to compose an argument paper. You're going to need to choose a topic f irst, but your topic ought to be something that has two conflicting points or unique conclusions. If you would like to learn what an argumentative essay is, the very first thing you ought to remember is that its primary purpose is to convince the audience to accept your viewpoint. In order to genuinely convince readers of your standpoint, the argumentative essay must also appear at the opposing views. The primary reason why somebody is writing an argumentative essay is to try to persuade or sway another individual or perhaps a group of men and women in your rightness in a particular theme. The Dirty Facts About Samples of an Argumentative Essay Without the appropriate knowledge or assistance on how best to write an argumentative essay, it can result in a poorly written paper that may really influence your general academic performance. Without regard to the quantity or kind of research involved, argumentative essays must set a very clear thesis and follow sound reasoning. Some of the exact same strategies you use for an introduction may also serve as part of the conclusion, like a gripping quote or a startling statistic. Figures and facts are a great process of persuasion. The range of paragraphs in longer papers isn't fixated, so you'll need to orient yourself on professor's instructions. An excellent outline will help you heaps in regards to the writing process. By now you're probably ready to find a fantastic argumentative essay outline template. By taking a look at examples, you can find a very clear picture of what things to expect, and be in a position to be successful in writing a fantastic college essay outline. Ideas, Formulas and Shortcuts for Samples of an Argumentative Essay You might also want to incorporate a brief discussion of more research that needs to be completed in light of your work. Choice of the essay topic can slow down your writing process for quite a while, since you just don't understand what you will write about. Wh en selecting a topic make sure you like it, as you have to devote days or even weeks on it, so it's important to stay motivated regarding the matter you discuss. Deciding upon an emotional topic is also a great idea. Remember that the amount of your essay is dependent upon the assignment offered to you. Writing an argumentative essay is a skill that anyone in school should know, even though it can be useful outside the classroom, also. Frequently students are permitted to choose argumentative essay topics by themselves, which can be both challenging and interesting at the exact same time. When asking us how to begin an argumentative essay, many students forget that they should get started with an outline.

Volkswagen Viral Marketing for Volkswagen - MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theVolkswagen Viral Marketing for Volkswagen. Answer: The model Citi Golf by Volkswagen was introduced in the country in the year 1984 and this car had the topmost demand in the market South African market as it was economical as well as it served all the demands of the customers of the country. But due to some major rules and regulations of the government of the country and also due to lack of safety on the part of the car, Volkswagen had to stop the production of this car and for that a campaign was announced for the people of South Africa in order to say goodbye to this car model. The campaign that was arranged by Volkswagen was based on a traditional approach and was a past oriented campaign. In todays world, the campaigns are not generally based in the past oriented features or the products of the company but this particular campaign from the part of the Volkswagen was based in the past and featured Citi Golf as a part of the campaign which was getting withdrawn from the South African market. This campaign was arranged with a motive to create brand recognition on the part of the customers of Volkswagen and an attempt was made to reach the customers perceived value of the services and the product value that is provided by the brand (Theron, 2012). As, with the closure of this particular product in the market, Volkswagen was planning to launch a new premium version of the same product, thus a campaign based on the past product, which is Citi Golf was arranged to create the demand for the premium version of the same product. Also, with the help of this particul ar campaign, the last few models of the Citi Golf was sold in the market with the help of the auction which states that fact that the price that was spent in the campaign by Volkswagen had paid off with the auction of the last few models of car and at the same time the promotion of the new premium version of Citi Golf was done in the market. Ogilvy, a partner of Volkswagen promotion in the South African market also helped a lot to promote the campaign that was organized by Volkswagen in the market with the help of different types of communication process through social media and also organized various places across various towns of the country in order to stop there so that people of the country who are emotional about the product, can sign their goodbye message on the car and be a part of the campaign (Ogilvy, 2013). There was also live recording that was telecasted in new channels and for all the promotion that has been done throughout the country; ZAR 16 million was the income from the special edition of the Citi Golf which states that fact that price played an important part in the campaign. For the success of a campaign, there are various methods of quantitative as well as qualitative measures that can be used in order to determine its success. The campaigns are conducted in order attract the potential customers of the organization towards the product and the services of the organization and for that reason, the outcomes of the campaigns are very significant to determine whether the results of the campaign are positive or negative. The following ways can be used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a campaign which is mentioned below: Qualitative Measures: The qualitative measures that can be sued in order to measure the effectiveness of a campaign are mentioned below: Brand Recognition: Brand recognition on part of the organization can be a qualitative measure of the campaign that has been done by the organization (Zvilichovsky et al., 2015). The measurement of the brand recognition can be done after the campaign had taken place and when the customers are able to identify the brand easily it can be said that the brand recognition on the part of the customers has increased with the help of the campaign and this is one of the main qualitative measures of the campaign. Customer Perception: The campaign on the part of the organization can also change the perception of the customers on the part of the brand (Bign et al., 2012). After the campaign the perception of the customers towards the brand can be calculated and when in calculation, it has been found that the perception of the customers are positive towards the brand, it can be said that the campaign is successful and this is another way of measuring the perception of the customers. Quantitative Measures: Apart from the qualitative ways to measure the effectiveness of the campaign, there are also quantitative ways with the help of which the effectiveness of the campaign can be measured which are mentioned below: Sales: The marketing campaign of an organization focuses upon increase of the sales of the company services and the products and for that reason, the sales can of the company should be checked after the marketing campaign and if there is an increase in the sales of the organization, it can be said that the marketing campaign is successful, as in the case study, it can be seen that with the help of the marketing campaign of Citi Golf, the last few models got sold in high rate in the auction. Revenue: Revenue is also an important determinant of the positivity of the campaign that takes place on the part of the company. The higher the revenue of the organization in the end of a financial year in which the campaign had taken place, the higher is the positive effects of the campaign that it had on the customers of the organization and the revenue determines the quantitative measurement of the campaign (Parente et al., 2014). With the help of the viral making campaign, Volkswagen is able to promote the premium model of the Citi Golf model of the brand which is extremely popular in South Africa. In order to make the campaign for the goodbye tour of old Citi Golf model a viral one, the company made a lot of effort to have an impact of the emotion of the customers of the organization. As de to some regulations of the South African Government and due to lack of road safety, the most popular car in South African roads were pulled off from the market, Vlkswagen with the help of Ogilvy, the promotion partner of the company arranged a campaign in the country where social media promotion was off course there along with promoting the brand over the televisions news channels and also through YouTube videos. The customers of the brands were attracted over to sign their messages for biding a goodbye to the most popular and favourite car of the country and this was arranged in various towns throughout the country (Gree nhouse, 2014). There was also a huge travel route which was designed by Ogilvy which the last manufactured Citi Golf in the country travelled and some special edition pieces was then kept for sale with the help of the auction which helped the company to earn a lot of money in the last few cars of the company. The signature and the messages of the emotionally attached customers also engaged the customers of the brand physically towards the campaign and that is the reason the campaign went viral over the country and also in the internet with the help of the social media site page creation and also through the live telecasting of campaign in YouTube. As the customers of the country are attached to this particular brand emotionally, the launch of the premium segment of this particular model is a superior idea from the managing director David Powel. Thus, running the campaign on the basis of the emotional upsurge of the customers at the correct time made the campaign go viral and it also helped the brand to sale the last few products of the particular model at high price at auction which is a positive aspect which was played by the viral marketing campaign (Denning, 2015). In large organizations such as Volkswagen, the marketing strategy of the company should be designed in such a way that it fulfils the objectives of the company. The marketing manager have various responsibility to formulate the marketing strategies of the organization which can fulfil the company objectives and for that reason, there are a variety of steps that the marketing managers need to follow: Firstly, the marketing manager views the objectives of the company and tries to formulate the marketing strategy in line with the company objectives (Lantos, 2015). Secondly, it should be known to the managers that what is the product of the company and what services does the company produce in order to segment the market according to the customers and target the customers of the organization. Also the positioning of the products are done by the marketing managers depending upon the products that the organizations manufacturing. For instance, when the product is a fuel efficient car, then the target is the medium and lower segment of the economy. Thirdly, the marketing mix of the company is designed by the marketing managers as per the budget that has been allocated to the manager and for that reason; the managers also have to depend on the product specification and the amount of product that will be manufactured (Fifield, 2012). Fourthly, the marketing promotional activities depend on the market that the company tries to reach for the sale of their products and for instance, if the company tries to reach a market of short number of customers, then the promotional activity that will be used by the marketing managers can be local newspapers, local television channels and so on, while a huge market can be captured with the help of promotional activities through social media and television or radio. Social networking is a buzzword in the 21st century and it is full of people from younger generation as well as people from older generation (Erdo?mu? and Cicek, 2012). Social media sites like Facebook is hugely populated and there are many organizations which promotes there campaign with the help of the social media sites and the campaign Goodbye Citi Golf was also promoted with the help of Facebook which helped it a lot to get popularity. With the help of the creation of the pages in facebook, the marketing campaign attracted the customers from all over the country and especially the youths of the country took part in the campaign as the youths are there in large number in facebook. There are various benefits of facebook marketing campaign that helped Volkswagen which is mentioned below: Firstly, the marketing campaign that occurred in Facebook and was conducted by Volkswagen and their partner Ogilvy was promoted in a very low cost, as the cost of promotion of campaign is very low in facebook and it helped Volkswagen to save their cost. Secondly, with the help of the interaction with the community and the customers with the help of the facebook pages, Volkswagen was able to promote the campaign more and this helped in the popularity of the campaign. Thirdly, with the Goodbye Citi Golf campaign, Volkswagen was removing their old version of the Citi Golf model and was launching the premium version of the car and it was discussed with the prospective clients about the prices, specs and other features of the premium car that was about to get launched with the help of facebook page. Lastly, facebook likes and shares helped Volkswagen a lot to spread the awareness about the campaign to the potential customers of the country and thus it can be said that Facebok played a pretty important role in the promotion of the campaign Goodbye Citi Golf. The long term consumers was also affected by the campaign that was prompted with the help of Facebook as they are emotionally attached with the brand and it can be said that in spite of being a long term customer, the departure of their favourite model of the car brought sad news to them, but at the same time the launch of the premium segment news of the car brought a joy to their mind with the help of the social media site announcement (Hortlik, 2014). References: Theron, W., 2012. The impact of new media on motoring journalism in South Africa (Doctoral dissertation). Ogilvy, D., 2013. Ogilvy on advertising. Vintage. Zvilichovsky, D., Inbar, Y. and Barzilay, O., 2015. Playing both sides of the market: Success and reciprocity on crowdfunding platforms. Bign, E., Currs-Prez, R. and Alds-Manzano, J., 2012. Dual nature of cause-brand fit: Influence on corporate social responsibility consumer perception. European Journal of Marketing, 46(3/4), pp.575-594. Parente, D. and Strausbaugh-Hutchinson, K., 2014. Advertising campaign strategy: A guide to marketing communication plans. Cengage Learning. Greenhouse, S., 2014. Volkswagen vote is defeat for labor in South. New York Times, 14. Denning, A., 2015. The People's Car: A Global History of the Volkswagen Beetle by Bernhard Rieger (review). German Studies Review, 38(1), pp.206-208. Lantos, G.P., 2015. Consumer behavior in action: Real-life applications for marketing managers. Routledge. Fifield, P., 2012. Marketing strategy. Routledge. Erdo?mu?, ?.E. and Cicek, M., 2012. The impact of social media marketing on brand loyalty. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, pp.1353-1360. Hortlik, J., 2014. International Communication Strategies of Volkswagen.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Learning Disability and Crime Associated with Criminality

Question: Discuss about the Learning Disability and Crime for Associated with Criminality. Answer: Learning disability has often been associated with criminality. This is due to the fact that criminals have often been found to possess a lower level of intelligence as compared to the general population. The lower level of intelligence is often responsible for making a person unable to understand the difference between good and bad and this is what makes the person undergoing mental deficiency highly susceptible to criminal activities. In order to understand this subject in a better and effective manner we have to first understand learning disability (Cleaver et al. 2011). There is a lot of confusion which exist regarding the appropriate definition of learning disability and it various from one country to another according to the perspective on which it is being utilised which could be social, medical and educational. Not so long age, the people with learning disabilities were known as mentally retarded and they needed special medical care and attention in order to lead a normal life which has been described in the Normalisation Theory of 1980s. Learning disability can be considered to be neurological disorder which hampers and affects the logical reasoning and processing capabilities of a person. A person suffering from learning disability generally has to undergo a lot of problem in learning basic skills such as reading, writing and performing mathematical calculations. In certain cases, the learning disability can also have a detrimental impact on the higher level skills of a person such as attention, reasoning, time planning, organisation and long/ short term memory (Roulstone et al. 2011). Learning disability affects the cognitive systems in an individual and thus it reduces the perception, attention, linguistic and mathematical abilities in that person. Thus, the people suffering from learning disability often have problem in differentiating the good from the bad and thus they are more prone to criminal activities. An American psychologist named Goddard was of the opinion that the people with learning disorders could not be held accountable for their criminal behavior as they are unable to understand the consequences of their actions due to their low intelligence levels. Goddard studied the family tree of Kallikaks who were a clan of people who were considered to be mentally incompetent. They lacked the necessary intelligence to distinguish between what is considered to be good and what is considered to be wrong and thus they did not have the sufficient power of judgment to do what is considered to be ethical and righteous in their actions. Goddard has opined that alm ost half of the people languishing in prison are suffering from what he termed as feeble-mindedness and the rate of defectiveness in among individuals in different prisons varied from 28% and 89% (Emerson Hatton, 2008). People having an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of below 100 are considered to be having less than average levels of intelligence. It has been found that people with learning disabilities have had a history of offending behavior and these people have been found to have an IQ level of 85 which was way below the average IQ of the general population. In cases of people who suffer from even severe learning disabilities (people having IQ less than 50), they are not charged or held responsible for their criminal actions as the legal establishments finds them lacking the criminal intent to commit the crime in the first place. The mental condition of the people with severe learning disabilities is responsible for clouding their better judgment and thus the laws show a certain amount of leniency in handling out a strict punishment to these types of offenders by keeping in mind their mental condition. This shows us the humane side of the law and makes us realise the importance of treating these pa tients with care and sympathy rather than hatred (Sndenaa et al. 2008). Research has also suggested that people with learning disability might commit sexual offences inadvertently without their knowledge and this generally happens due to their misunderstanding about sex. The cognitive distortions occurring in their minds affect their level of thinking and they are unable to realise that their actions is totally wrong and inappropriate. Their lack of sexual knowledge is also one of the main reasons which might prevent them from realising the consequence of their actions and the life-long impact which their action is going to have on their victims. Rachel Fyson of Ann Craft Trust has found in a research that the people suffering from learning disabilities are also more likely to become victims of sexual abuse and they would also be unable to report the incidence of sexual abuse which had been undergone by them (Reynolds et al. 2010). Those individuals who have been sexually abused might abuse others in future. The cases of inappropriate sexual behavior are a very common trend in special schools which a high prevalence of rape and sodomy among the inhabitants. However, there are certain challenges which are being faced in this context as mentioned by the normalization theories. There is a fine line which exists between inappropriate sexual behavior between two consenting adults and what in legal terms is considered to be sexual abuse and this is one of the main reasons which there is underreporting of such cases. They law needs to clearly demarcate between the two and this will help in providing the necessary medical and psychological intervention which is necessary for the victims of sexual abuse (Fyson, 2009). Reference Roulstone, A., Thomas, P., Balderston, S. (2011). Between hate and vulnerability: unpacking the British criminal justice systems construction of disablist hate crime.Disability Society,26(3), 351-364. Cleaver, H., Unell, I., Aldgate, J. (2011).Children's Needs-Parenting Capacity: Child Abuse-Parental Mental Illness, Learning Disability, Substance Misuse and Domestic Violence. The Stationery Office. Fyson, R., Kitson, D. (2010). Human rights and social wrongs: Issues in safeguarding adults with learning disabilities.Practice,22(5), 309-320. Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., Ou, S. R. (2010). Preschool education, educational attainment, and crime prevention: Contributions of cognitive and non-cognitive skills.Children and Youth Services Review,32(8), 1054-1063. Emerson, E., Hatton, C. (2008). CEDR Research Report 2008 (1): People with Learning Disabilities in England. Fyson, R. (2009). Independence and learning disabilities: why we must also recognize vulnerability.The Journal of Adult Protection,11(3), 18-25. Vacca, J. S. (2008). Crime can be prevented if schools teach juvenile offenders to read.Children and Youth Services Review,30(9), 1055-1062. Sndenaa, E., Rasmussen, K., Palmstierna, T., Nttestad, J. (2008). The prevalence and nature of intellectual disability in Norwegian prisons. Journal of intellectual disability research, 52(12), 1129-1137.